Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was President of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. During her Presidency, she refused to sign any execution order, commuted all death sentences into life imprisonment and eventually abolished the death penalty in 2006. She had already pronounced her opposition against the death penalty when she was elected Senator in 1992, a position in which she remained until 1998. From 1998 to 2001, before holding the highest office in her country, she served as Vice-President of the Philippines. After her term as President, Ms Macapagal-Arroyo was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives. She was elected by her peers to head the House of Representatives from 2018-2019, becoming the first female Speaker of the said House.